Where do Cottontail Rabbits Live?

Where do cottontail rabbits live?

The cottontail rabbits are most common species that can be found all over the Eastern-to mid- Western USA from Canada to South America. The cottontail rabbits usually like to live on the edges of fields and meadows, where there are plenty of herbs and grasses and also brushwood covered with. The Eastern cottontail does not dig their own holes, but they can re-use the burrows of other animals. However, these species are naughtily lovely. This species also find the best hiding spots to hide away from predators. This Eastern cottontail rabbit express a higher resistance to myxomatosis than the European rabbits. Its lifespan is about two years, based on the location they live.

Pick the best indoor rabbit cage

Pick the best indoor rabbit cage

In general, having a pet is a two-way relationship. They can make you pleasure, so you must also make them joy in return. Apart from giving sufficient water and food to your pet, you can make sure to find the right place for them to sleep and play that would be more appreciated. Right now, one of the greatest places to stay them relax is picking the best cage for happy home pets, that routinely supports to prevent your pet from getting sick. Apart from cleaning the floor, you can also go through a cleaning like brushing the whole cage once per year. Therefore, this will not only give a nice place for your pet to live, but also extend the life of an indoor cage for many years.

Normally, the pets are very fun to play with and that is why; you want to search for a good cage with simple entry, so you can simply take your pet out without hurting them. Actually, the indoor cage with a top open is your good bet, as it will offer you more opening space for taking a rabbit in and out. You should also remember that your pet want to obtain the one with a large entry, if you cannot even discover the one with a top opening. In addition to, you must also look for a cage with a strong base and you can locate a newspaper on the floor to make cleaning a lot simpler.

Necessity of indoor rabbit cages

Necessity of indoor rabbit cages

Now, the indoor rabbit cages are widely available that becomes possible to keep your rabbits as pets indoors, where you happen to live in a place without the outdoors compound. At present, the indoor rabbit cages come in a wide range of styles, sizes and materials. Among all the rabbit cages, it is quite complex to discover a properly made indoor cage that does not integrate a woven wire minimum partly in its outdoor structure. However, this indoor cage tends to integrate the tiny wheels and makes it possible to move the cages around the rooms that they are located in during the cleaning times.

As like any other fashion rabbit cages, these indoor cages have a tendency to participate what can be referred to as a tray structure on their bottom level. This builds the base and basis of the cages. Overall, this indoor rabbit cage is inclined to be a larger than the rabbit cages made for outdoor use. This is normally done; because of the space considerations in the indoors. This rabbit cage in indoor is big enough to accommodate the rabbits more comfortably and also provided them playing space. Otherwise, the rabbits are finishing up with stress; because playing is a most essential part of rabbit’s life.

Taking care of your pet with the best cage for your rabbit

Taking care of your pet with the best cage for your rabbit

No doubt, rabbits are one of the amazing happy home pets that you need to take care of them with a best cage. If you have rabbits as a pet, you should ensure a few things. One of the most essential things that you want to have for this pet is cage. The rabbits can easily be toilet trained, so you do not have to worry the idea of keeping them within your place. Also, you cannot even let it roam around anywhere in the home and hence need an indoor cage to take care of them. Thus, this cage can support your rabbit to feel secure and safe other than controlling its access inside your home.

Dominance Theory

dog training behavior problems nutrition history ethology
Dominance can be a very controversial issue. Some trainers will tell you that you have to roll a dog over and growl in his face to exert your dominance. Others will act so negatively towards that idea, that they are afraid to mention it at all.
Canine ethology is pretty tricky because it is very difficult to study dogs. What is their natural habitat? Every family is different and dogs are used for many different purposes. There is no ideal setting to study dogs and putting them in a lab is out of the question. Studying wolves in the wild is very difficult. It’s hard to know which wolves are part of which pack and they move around too much to really study.
Some scientists thought they found the ideal solution: study captive wolves. Many of the thoughts of dominance theory came from these studies. The most famous would be the Yellowstone wolf reintroduction program and the Monks of New Skete observation in the 1970s, although scientists have been studying captive wolves since the 1940s.
dogs training behavior Both studies introduced adult wolves and noticed that there was a lot of fighting over resources. “Alpha’s” would exert their dominance over lower ranking wolves and they were constantly fighting for that “top dog” position.
Because of this, some trainers will tell you that you should put chokechains or prong collars on your dogs to simulate the corrections of the alpha dog. You may hear that you need to pinch their necks or remain aloof because that is the way that animals in the wild behave.
The problem: Animals in the wild don’t behave that way. Almost never will a dominant animal use force to gain control. Real leaders are more subtle than that. There is an old saying in the business world “If you have to tell them you’re boss, then you’ve lost them already.” Real leaders are cool. Real leaders are calm. Real leaders lead because others want to follow. Think of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Think of Mohondas Ghandi or Cesar Chavez. Emulate real leaders.
Earlier I used the qualifier “almost never” do animals rule by force in the wild. It does sometimes happen, but it is rare and when it happens, there is invariably an uprising. They kill that leader. And it has to be that way. Sadly, to see the human equivalent of this, you don’t have to look much further than Tunisia or Libya today. Unfortunately, there are many examples of this. Remember, leaders are cool and they are calm. It is very hands off. If you find yourself using your hands or legs then you are doing it wrong. Always use common sense. Ask yourself if this is something you would do to a child. Be a real leader.
dog training behavior problems nutrition history ethology
Dogs are not tame wolves, even though they’re genetically similar. Dogs are closer to wolf pups than they are to adult wolves. Dogs and wolves differ by about 0.2% of their mitochondrial DNA.  A dog is a wolf in arrested development. A dog is a wolf who will never reach full maturity.
Real wolf packs are not made up of competing adults, wolf packs are made up of the alpha male and female (AKA the mom and dad) the beta (older siblings who have survived) and the wolf pups. Most wolf pups do not survive to see their second birthday. Those that do survive go off and form their own packs. All wolves will become alpha if they live long enough.
The truth is that you have to be the leader of your pack. You have to be in control of your dog. Your dog is the wolf pup, he is the infant. This is our world and we know what’s best for dogs in our world. We know that they have to go to the vet or the groomers. We know that they have to have walks and baths and get their teeth brushed. We know what’s best for them because this is our world. Dogs who do not know who’s in charge end up very stressed out and unhealthy. Often they make bad decisions. Sometimes those bad decisions include biting.
I wrote earlier that if you wouldn’t do it to a child, then don’t do it to a dog. A child is not happy if they think their parents are not in control of any situation and dogs are no different. They need to know that you are in control in order to feel safe and secure.
The catch is that you have to be in control the right way. You have to be firm, you have to be fair, you have to be consistent and you have to control the resources. Dogs don’t work for free. Show them you’re the boss by controlling the paycheck. The simple act of cuing a dog to sit and then giving them a treat for sitting is all it takes to raise your status. It is unnecessary and sometimes even harmful to do anything else.
But don’t take my word for it:
AVSAB Position Statement on the Use of Dominance Theory in Behavior ModificationPDF
Experts Say Dominance-Based Training Techniques Made Popular By Television Contribute to Dog Bites
What Were They Thinking? More Than We Knew
Behavioral Science Turns to Dogs for Answers
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Introducing Dogs and Children

Children and dogs can be the best of friends. However, it is wise to go slowly. Many dogs can find the high pitched squeals and quick movements of children to be rather scary. Some children can find the rambunctious playfulness of some puppies to be intimidating. With patience, most dogs and children can be taught to enjoy each other, they often form deep bonds that stay with them long into adulthood.
Introducing Children to a New Dog
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Step 1: Before you even get the dog, you should teach the child the right way to pet a dog. Once the child understands that the best way to approach a dog is in a calm manner, then you can take him to meet the potential puppy. Walk the child through the right way to greet and pet a dog. Several times, if necessary.
Step 2: “A bribe is a charm to the one who gives it; where ever he turns, he succeeds.” (Proverbs 17:8) When the dog and child meet for the first time, instruct the child to give the dog a treat. Make sure that your child is holding the treat under the dogs head and that his palm is flat. It is much safer for the dog to lick the treat off a child’s hand than it is for him to try to grab it with his teeth.
Step 3: Ensure that both the child and the puppy feel that there is an escape route. Cornered animals can be dangerous!
Step 4: If the child is fearful and the dog is excitable, keep the dog on a leash. This way the child will feel that he has an escape route.  If the dog gets too rambunctious, you can lead him out side until he calms down. Several times, if necessary. Go slowly, for sake of the kid and the dog.
Step 5: Make sure that the dog has a “den” (i.e. a crate or other preferred hiding place) that he can hide in when he gets too overwhelmed.
Step 6: Let sleeping dogs lie. Children need to be taught not to pet dogs when they are eating or sleeping.
Introducing a Dog to a New Baby
If you have a new baby, you want to give your dog some time to adjust to the sudden and drastic changes that will soon disrupt his tidy little routine. You had nine months to prepare for your little bundle of joy, but this will be all new to your dog.
Step 1: When you find out that you are expecting, set down some new rules and begin enforcing them before the baby comes. Not after. This way, his new routine will be set when the baby comes and the change won’t seem as drastic. Whether or not he is allowed to jump, if he is no longer allowed in certain rooms, etc. should all be established before the baby comes home.
Step 2: Teaching the dog a “move” or “back” command will be very useful when the mothers arms are holding the baby or when baby is old enough to crawl. This way nobody trips over a dog and becomes injured.
Step 3: Get your dog used to baby sounds. Babies aren’t quiet. They gurgle, they squeal, they scream and cry and all of this sounds unusual to dogs who aren’t used to kids. More alarming, some of the sounds that babies make can even sound like prey! It is very important that your dog is used to these noises long before the baby comes home. Some pet stores and many online stores sell c.d.s of baby noises that can be really helpful in habituating Rover to little Jr.
Step 4: Gather your dogs toys and put them in their own little toy chest. Dog toys and children’s toys look very much alike, and many dogs get confused over who’s toy belongs to whom. Teach Fido that his toys only come from his toy chest.
Step 5: Before you bring the baby into your home, let the dog sniff the blanket that the baby was wrapped in. Getting your dog used to the little one’s smells will make the greeting easier for him. When mom comes home, have someone else hold the baby so she can greet the dog. He will be very happy to see her and in the excitement, you don’t want the baby to be injured. Once he has settled down, let him sniff the baby. 
Step 6: Don’t forget your dog. Once that baby comes, your house is going to be turned on end. Make sure that you still have a bit of time to devote to giving Rex his mental and physical exercise. Set reminders to let the dog out to do his business. If you are not meeting your dog’s needs, then he will look for stimulation elsewhere. Don’t blame it on “Jealousy,” this is just what happens when a dog’s needs aren’t met. Doggy Day Camps or professional dog walkers can all help lighten your load. If you have older children, they can be a big help to you as well.
Never leave a dog and baby unattended. Ever. Accidents happen, no matter how sweet and trustworthy the dog or the baby is. There is very little room for error on this. Always supervise infant and dog interaction.
babies kids dogs
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Bringing Home Baby

You’ve seen them; little bundles of joy, 8 weeks old, covered in fur, big eyes peaking out at you and taking everything in. Maybe you were passing the pet store in the mall and a sign with big bold letters read “Puppy Sale.” Or maybe you were walking into a department store and sitting in the hot parking lot was a family of five with a box marked “Free Puppies.” Either way, you were hooked. You can’t say no to those big brown eyes so you take the little fluff ball home with you.
Congratulations, you just made common mistake number one! Animals should never be an impulse item. Animals are Sentient beings capable of emotions, the ability to feel pain, and unique personalities and traits. All dogs are individuals, but within breeds you may see certain traits that are common characteristics of the breed. Before getting a dog, sit down and ask ask yourself these questions:
Do I have time for a puppy?
Do you like sleep? Too bad, you’ll be getting up every few hours to let the puppy out unless you litter train him. Want to go on vacation to Barbados? You’d better find some one to watch Fido for a week. Enjoy your spare time? A lot of it will be spent training Rex and taking him on a  2-4 mile round trip walk. Puppies are a lot of work, if you don’t have the time to meet everyone of her needs then you had better not get her. But that’s okay, guinea pigs make fun pets too. Try that instead.
Do I have the money for a puppy?
There is no way around it, puppy’s cost money. That first year you are going to be dropping major bank on supplies, food, veterinary care, training and even replacements for destroyed household items. If you can not afford a dog then don’t get a dog. It is illegal, not to mention unethical, to get a dog and not care for him. If you can not meet Rover’s needs then he is better off without you. But hey, goldfish are cheap. 
What breed is right for me?
Okay, we’ve established that you have the time and money to take care of a little puppy, now you need to decide which one is right for you. If you are a marathon runner maybe you want a running mate? An athletic Pit bull Terrier may make an excellent jogging buddy, an English Bulldog would not. Say you are a couch potato who considers going to the kitchen for a soda to be a week’s worth of exercise. A Boxer would be the wrong kind of dog for you, but a Pug may be right up your alley. Got four kids? A rambunctious Lab may have the energy to keep up with small children. Do your homework and really research what breed of dog is right for you, but remember that these are guidelines only. All dogs are different, even within a breed standard.
Finding your dog
Pound Puppies: 
Congratulations, you saved a life! Every day shelters in America are forced to kill 30,000 dogs and cats. The life of the dog you saved could turn out to be your very best friend. Older dogs know that you rescued them from a bad situation and many bond stronger with you than if they came from a breeder. Adopting a pound puppy is an excellent option, but it is not without its disadvantages. Older dogs may have ‘baggage,’ older dogs and puppies may have minor health problems such as malnutrition, worms or other parasites. Fortunately, these minor health problems are usually pretty easy to fix.
When adopting from a shelter, unless you are adopting an ‘owner surrender’  it is unlikely you will know anything about the dogs back story; where he came from, how he’s been treated, etc. The breed of dog may also be a surprise. I once trained a dog that weighed 30lbs, the dog was a pound puppy and was adopted out as a chihuahua! Shelter workers and volunteers make their best guesses, but in the end, that’s all it is– Guesswork.
Getting a mixed breed from a pound can have the advantage of not developing breed specific illnesses, but if you have your mind set on a purebred dog, take heart. A quarter of all pound puppies are purebred. There are also Breed Rescues that cater to certain specific breeds.
Breeders: 
If you are going to adopt a dog from a breeder then do your homework. Many breeders are backyard breeders out to make a quick buck. These irresponsible breeders will not do background checks for hereditary health issues, they won’t screen potential owners and many of them will get rid of the puppy before it is developmentally ready. Never get a puppy if she is under 8 weeks old. 8 weeks should be the minimum age you take the dog home.
Not all breeders are irresponsible, some do it out of love for the breed and a genuine love of animals. Look for a breeder who has done hereditary checks and who screens potential owners. Look at the price of the dog, a healthy dog from a reputable breeder is going to cost you a mint. But it’s worth it to know that you got a healthy pup. Look at the home of the breeder.
-Is it clean?
-Are there too many dogs there?
-Does the dame look friendly and healthy?
-Are the puppies eyes clean and bright?
-Is the puppies skin elastic?
-Are the puppies active and curious?
-Is the anus free of fecal matter?
-Are the yard and kennel odor free?
If you answered ‘no’ to just one of these questions then get the dog elsewhere. I don’t care how attached you are to the cute little brown one, or that you drove 30 miles just to get there. Don’t support bad breeders. It could be that the health and well being of your dog that is at stake. A good breeder makes very little profit on the dogs, even on a dog you paid several hundred dollars for. This is because so much is put into the care and well being of the puppy before he leaves the home. A good breeder will make you sign a waiver saying that you will return the dog to them if things don’t work out. 
Puppy Mills: 
There is no nice way to say this so I’m just going to be blunt. Don’t get a dog from a puppy mill. Just don’t do it. There is no excuse to support puppy mill operators. If you want to help those dogs then call the authorities or the Humane Society. Puppy Mills are a business, run strictly for profit. Dogs are kept in deplorable environments; deprived of comfort, human interaction, and canine interaction. Puppies often leave the puppy mills with serious health and behaviour problems. Female breeding stock are kept caged and continually bred for years. When she has outlived her usefulness she is then killed, abandoned or sold to another mill.
Pet stores: 
Pet stores almost always get their puppies from puppy mills. They may try to dress it up and tell you about the “farm” that the puppy was lovingly raised on, but the truth is that even the fanciest pet store in the nicest part of town got their dogs from puppy mills. The puppies go straight from the mill to the store and miss out on a crucial socialization period. They are often sold with little to no thought about their health and well being. Many have health and behaviour issues brought about by lack of socialization. The puppies are sold to the consumer and it becomes their problem. Pet stores often have “guarantees” on their puppies promising replacement puppies if yours suddenly dies. They are able to do this because the markup is so high. Every dog purchased from a pet store encourages the store and the puppy mill to continue the endless cycle of abuse.
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A Brief History

Dogs and humans have been sharing quarters for the past several thousand years or so. (The exact figure is under considerable debate.) Dogs actually predate civilization. Brought together by a mutual need for food and protection, early man discovered that hunting was made easier with wolves, and having an active alarm system during a time when predatory dangers abound is a considerable advantage. Dogs were the first animals to be domesticated. In a process called selective breeding, the tamer wolf pups were kept, trained and bred, while the shyer wolves were driven away. Interestingly, while the more aggressive wolves were being culled, so were the people who did not like wolves. People who did not keep wolves lost the evolutionary advantage of having a hunter and protector. Their genes did not get passed on. This may be why dogs are popular in every single culture on earth.
In the 19th century excavators in Belgium found a skull of a dog dated to about 31,700 years ago. This skull had a shorter muzzle than wolves from the same time period. The second oldest skeleton wasn’t found until 14,000 years ago in Russia. It is uncertain whether or not dogs were a regular part of life and how much of a role they payed in the interim. What we do know for certain is that by 10,000 years ago, dogs were deeply entwined with human life in China and Africa.
dog training behavior problems nutrition history ethology

In 2009, The Royal Institute of Stockholm (led by Peter Savolainen) published an analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of 1,500 dogs scattered across the Old World. 

According to Savolainen,
“We found that dogs were first domesticated at a single event, sometime less than 16,300 years ago, south of the Yangtze River.” he believes that all dogs came from a population of 51 female wolves. The timing of the domestication of early wolves coincides with the origin of rice agriculture. It is possible, but not definitive, that early farmers or sedentary hunter/gatherers were the first to domesticate the wolf.
Complicating matters, is Robert Wayne of the University of California, Los Angeles, who showed in 2010, that the DNA of the domestic dog most closely resembles that of the Near Eastern wolf. Wayne believes that dogs were first domesticated in the Middle East.
The discrepancies may suggest that domestication was not a single event, but rather that it happened in multiple locations at different times. Sisan Crockford, archeozoologist at the University of Victoria has evidence that there was a “separate origin of North American dogs, distinct from a Middle Eastern origin”.
Regardless of when how or why they came to be domesticated, there is no doubt that they played many roles in every culture on earth.
As wolves continued to be bred, they began to change in physical characteristics. Their fur changed, their teeth changed and they lost strength in their jaws, the ears of some breeds became less erect and they began to change sizes. By the Bronze Age there were five distinct breeds: Mastiffs, wolf dogs, Greyhounds, pointing dogs and shepherding dogs. By the Greek and Roman empires their duties had expanded from hunters, herders and guardians to pets. 
Archeologists in 2006 found the preserved remains of about 80 dogs among the 2000 people buried in an ancient cemetery near the city of Ilo, Peru. Each dog had his own grave near his owner and almost all of them died of natural causes. Some were buried in fine linen blankets and many were buried next to fish and llama bones. (Presumably as a snack for the afterlife.) These dogs were pets but it is also likely that they were used for herding llamas and alpacas.
In 1902, archeologists have also uncovered the mummy of a small dog dating back to the 4th century B.C., in the city of Abydos. The dog died around the age of two, and had the build of a Jack Russell Terrier. Salima Ikram of American University in Cairo, believes that the dog went into mourning after his owner passed and died shortly after. “There are much earlier Middle Kingdom tombs that depict a man and his dog, and both are named so that they can survive into the afterworld together.”
Throughout history, there have been countless dog burials excavated, many of them have been found next to their people. This underscores the deep bond that people and animals share. Not only do the animals go on into the afterlife with their people, but many are also given elaborate burials. This indicates that the ancient people believed that the animals souls lived on, the same as a humans. Animals and ancient people shared much, including spirituality. 
It is not uncommon to see the role that animals play in religion. The Vedic hymns in India assume an encounter with dogs in the afterlife, Cerberus guards the entrance to Hell in Greek and Roman mythology, and the Aztecs believe that the dead enter the afterlife grasping the tail of Xolotl, the dog god. Similarly, in the American Southwest, the Native Americans believed that dogs would escort the recently departed into the afterlife.
The ancient peoples recognized a spirituality about dogs than many modern people miss. According to a Gallup poll, 80% of Americans believe that they will go to Heaven when they die, but only 43% believe that animals will go to Heaven with them. Does this mean that somewhere along the lines humans lost their spirituality? Or that dogs did? That discussion is best left for a different website. 
pound puppies animal shelters
As the centuries and cultures marched on, dogs began to take on many shapes and forms. From the diminutive chihuahua to the mighty Cane Corso, all share the same DNA. UCLA Canid Biologist and Moleculer geneticist Robert Wayne has traced dogs directly to the grey wolf. An act that has led to their reclassification in 1993 from canis familiaris to canis lupus familiaris. This is why, theoretically a Dachshund could breed with an Irish Wolfhound or even a Grey Wolf and their offspring would turn out viable.
Dogs have worked for humans for thousands of years, but their jobs have changed over time. Dogs went from Hunting and herding to Police and disability assistance dogs. Dogs have worked on farms, in airports, in the military, in search and rescue. Dogs have been used to sniff out mold or mildew, and in swanky hotels, dogs have been employed to sniff out bed bugs. Throughout the world, in Industrial cities and farming communities, there are dogs who live the same today as they have 15,000 years ago.
Time may march on, but dogs and people share a bond that can not be easily broken.

A Dogs View

 

dog training behaviourA dog’s world is not our world. Despite popular belief, dogs are not furry, four legged children. They are a species completely separate from us. One of the biggest differences is language. As obvious as it sounds, dogs have no language, they have communication, but not language. As humans, we tend to take language for granted. With language, I can think about having dinner at my favorite restaurant. I may not be hungry at this moment, but I was able to anticipate a future need (hunger) and formulate a plan (where to eat). With language I can formulate abstract ideas about life, philosophy, or science. If I read the sentence “The pen is blue.” I have an idea of an object (the pen) and its basic characteristics (the colour blue, its basic pen-like shape, the ability to write stuff). With language I can live in the past, present or future. I can remember (without external stimulation) the time I went hang-gliding. I can feel the wind through my hair, and the freedom that comes from flying with the eagles, I can feel the chill of the atmosphere  at 2,000 feet. Using language, I can communicate those sensations to you. With language, I can dream of the future. I can plan a trip to Brazil and imagine lying on their famous beaches, drinking fancy cocktails in fancier glasses. I have never before drank a cocktail on any beach, but because of language, I can get an idea of what it may be like. I can compare airline prices and find a decent hotel. With language it becomes easy. Without language, we could only live in the present.

Animals have memories, but they are sparked by external stimulation. They can recognize a familiar face and the joy or fear that comes from seeing that face, but they can’t remember that trip you took to Florida last year.
Dogs, and other animals, think in pictures. They are capable of basic emotions (love, anger, jealousy, happiness and grief), but not complex emotions (a love/hate relationship, guilt, embarrassment, shame). Like a human’s brain, a dog’s brain interprets and analyzes information and acts accordingly. Whereas humans use language to help us interpret information, dogs use their senses.
A dogs senses are different from ours.
They can see in darkness much better than we can. They can see at a distance better than us, though we are much better at seeing objects that are closer to us. A dog can spot a person waving at him from 20 yards away, but may miss that treat lying directly in front of him. Dogs are not necessarily colour blind; they can see blues, greys, greens, black, cream and white. By contrast, humans can see over 7 million different colours.
A dog can hear over four times the distance that humans can hear and can hear tones that we can’t distinguish. They have 15 different muscles in their ears and can pinpoint a sound in just a fraction of a second.
With 2 billion smell receptors in their nose, versus 40 million in ours, an average dog can smell over 100,000 times better than we can smell. They use their sense of smell, among other things, as a communication tool. A dog is constantly bombarded with smells. They can smell autism, cancer, menstruating women, age, diet, alcohol intake, fevers and even drugs inside the human body. 
A dog’s sense of taste is not as developed as a human’s, they are capable of tasting sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. A dog’s sense of taste is linked to his sense of smell. A dog will not eat what he can’t smell.
Dogs seem to be tactile like humans. They communicate by touch and most really love to have their bellies rubbed! A dog’s entire body is covered with touch sensitive nerve-endings. A dog can detect subtle changes in air flow and air pressure. This is one of the many reasons a dog can sense ahead of time when a storm is coming. There are many acupressure spots on a dog (their chest, their head, their spine) that when massaged can even calm down an anxious or hyper dog. 
A dogs world is not our world, but we have evolved together throughout the millennia. We train them and all the while they are training us. We learn each others body language and coexist. We depend on each other, as dogs were evolving to adapt to us (their brains grew smaller, their jaws became weaker) we evolved to adapt to them. Our brains also grew smaller, our sense of smell became less defined, our eyesight became weaker. It almost seems as if we evolved to depend on each other. We coexist. This has been true since the beginning of time and will likely continue until the last man or dog dies out. We have formed a partnership, we cooperate with each other and when done right, we’re in perfect sync.

Communication

dogs parks and day camps
The biggest thing that separates humans from animals is language. Not communication mind you, but language. Animals have a pretty complex system of communication and the more complex the pack, the more complex and nuanced the communication. I briefly run down communication here but I want to really expound on it here. Both you and your dog will benefit if you learn his form of communication. Even if you do not have a dog, it is helpful to know what they are thinking and can even save you from harm!
Dogs communicate primarily through body language, sound and touch. 
Postures and movement convey rank, mood and intent. To understand what a dog is thinking or feeling you need to look at her entire body. If you focus on just one body part you could be missing the whole story and the results could be dangerous. 
ethology and psychology dogsLook at the dog’s head: If she is holding her head high then she is interested in her environment, what she smells, hears or sees. Confident dogs hold their heads proud and high. If her head is high and her neck is arched, then not only is she confident, but she is showing off her superior rank to other dogs. (One might compare this to high ranking humans who hold their heads high and puff their chests out.) If her head is high but her neck is cocked, then she is showing her interest and curiosity. If her head and neck are level, her body is crouched and leaning forward and her posture is stiff then she is ready to charge forward. This could be the result of a curious and playful nature, or an aggressive response. 
If her head and neck are level or level but lowered below her shoulder, her body is stiff and she is leaning backward then she is ready to escape. This dog may bite if cornered. 
If her head and neck are level or level and below her shoulders, her head is turned to the side and her cheek is turned up, then she is ready to appease. 
If her head and neck are level or level and below the shoulders and her body is curved so the head and tail are facing the same way  then she is feeling fearful and cornered. This dog may bite if approached.
If the head and nose are down, the nose is tucked towards the chest, eyes are averted, and the dog is crouching slightly, then she is displaying a lack of confidence and a show of submission to those who rank higher. 
Look at the dog’s tail: If a dog is holding the tail high, stiff and unmoving then the dog is assessing his surroundings. He is ready to take on a challenge if the mood calls for it. If the tail is high and has a stiff wag then he is displaying dominance and is ready to fight if necessary. 
If the dog is holding his tail high, wagging it stiffly and in a small arc the dog is willing to engage in friendly play if the other dog is willing to play with him. It may also be a sign of sexual interest if the dog in question has not been altered. 
If the dog is wagging his tail in a relaxed manner and in a wide arc, then he is friendly and enthusiastic. 
If the dog is holding his tail stiff, straight, and horizontal then the dog is assessing the situation, is interested in his surroundings and is ready to engage in chase if the individual he is focused on flees. 
If the tail is horizontal and still then the dog is interested but not really going to chase or move towards other animals or people. 
If the tail is horizontal but the tip is drooping then the dog is assessing the situation, but is unsure of whether to proceed or run. 
If the tail is down, but has a gentle wag to it, then the dog is friendly, but shy or unconfident. 
If the tail is tucked but wagging, then the dog is unconfident, but willing to be petted only if you approach him slowly. He may panic and run if you take things to fast.
If the tail is tucked and still then he is fearful and will run if approached and bite if cornered.
If the dog has tucked his tail, rolled over on his side or his back, (and may or may not urinate) then that dog is making himself the most submissive he can possibly be.
understanding dogs and their behavior
Look at the dog’s ears. If they are perked and facing forward  then she is interested and curious. 
If they are partially lifted facing forward then she is interested, but not enough to approach. 
If the ears are slightly back, but perked, then she is relaxed.
If the ears are lifted halfway and face the side, then she is worried, but also curious. 
If the ears are lowered, either facing the ground or backwards, then the dog is worried and wishes to escape. 
If the ears are lowered and  pinned to the sides of the head, then the dog is terrified, but may be to afraid to run. She will likely bite if approached or cornered. 
Look at the dog’s eyes. If he is staring intently,  and his gaze is hard and unwavering, then he is an overly confident dog and may be aggressive or display a predatory nature. 
If the eyes are averted, then he is submissive and possibly afraid. 
If the eyes dart back and forth from a person or animal than he is afraid or nervous. 
Look at the teeth. Dogs bare their teeth out of fear, predation, play fighting or aggression. If she is showing you a small portion of her teeth then she is warning you what she is capable of. As she becomes more threatening she will expose more teeth. Angry dogs who bare their teeth will also display deep facial folds or wrinkles. A dog who is ready to attack will display wrinkles from the tips of the mouth to well above the nose. 
Do not mistake a dog baring her teeth for what is known as a “doggy” or “canine’ grin. Some dogs will smile in a friendly way or as a greeting, Some dogs will grin when relaxed. A doggy grin is accompanied by relaxed posture and slightly closed eyes. A dog who is smiling will only show relaxed wrinkles around the mouth.
animal shelters and rescuesLook at the fur: When a dog is feeling fearful or aggressive, then he will display piloerection (His hackles along his back will be raised).  This is an evolutionary response to make him appear larger than he actually is. Many dogs who display piloerection are not angry dogs, some are anxious or nervous. Some dogs will do it when they meet other dogs and if he feels their is no threat, he will lower his hackles. 
Look at the posture. Remember what your mama always said; posture is important. If the dog is crouching or skulking near the ground then she is submissive and may be afraid. 
If she is standing tall, stiff, rises on her paws and leans forward then she is confident, curious, and excited. But she may also be aggressive or predatory. 
If she initiates a play bow (front elbows touching the ground, head down and backside up in the air) then she is playful and friendly. Often you will see a play bow preceding play and during play.
If she is on her back, showing her belly, then she is submissive or scared. 

Check Your Ego At The Door

Dogs love unconditionally. They’ve seen you at the lowest points in your life and they’ve been there through the high points. They’ve seen you naked, they’ve heard you sing. They’ve been there throughout accidents, illness and health. When done right, it is a true partnership.
dogs and childrenPeople get dogs for a variety of reasons. Some feel that they need protection, some feel that their family won’t be complete without a dog, some people fall in love with the first furry face they see and just can’t resist. Some people need dogs to be their eyes or ears, some need warning that they’re about to have seizures. Some people get a pitbull or a Rottweiler so they can look “tough,”  or “street.”  Some people get dogs so that they can pit them against each other for sport and profit. Some people get a Yorkie or a Chihuahua to carry around in their purse so they can show off how “High Maintenance” they are.
Regardless of your reasons, the dog rarely has a say in it. Puppies come into this world as blank slates. You will get out of them exactly what you put into them.
I’ve seen huge men walking Chihuahuas and my first thought was “Now there goes a real man.” Conversely, I’ve seen men walking walking huge dogs using prong collars and spiked harnesses and thought how sad it was that men that big can’t control a harmless little dog without resorting to aversive methods. I’ve seen people hit dogs for licking them in the face, I’ve even seen a man hit a dog for whining. There is nothing more pathetic than that.
Dogs are sentient beings, they have feelings and emotions comparable to ours. They are not and should not be status symbols. You want to look tough? Go work out at the gym and get muscles the size of your head. You want to look like a diva? Buy a pink corvette and wear clothes you can’t afford. But leave the animals out of it. They get no say.
I’ve seen people strangle dogs, scream at dogs and kick their dogs because they didn’t obey a command in a timely manner. To those people I ask: Do you do everything right as you’re told to 100% of the time? I know I don’t. Animals are intelligent beings who deserve the same compassion as anybody else. They are not status symbols. They are not here because our ego demands it. If you are so insecure that the only way you can feel like a man is to slap a spiked leather collar on a Great Dane, then you would be better off without the dog. Save the money you would have spent on dog food to go see a shrink and work out your problems. Both you and the dog will be better for it.
I’ve seen people go into debt to provide veterinary care for their dogs.  I’ve seen people go without food so that they could feed their dog. I’ve seen the highs and lows of mankind when it comes to animals. Just remember that that little being beside you depends on you 100%.
There is nothing inherently wrong with spiked collars for decoration. There is nothing wrong with a feminine woman who enjoys small dogs or a big guy who likes big dogs and vice versa. Just make sure that you’re getting the right dog for the right reason. Get a dog whose energy level and personality matches yours, you’ll both be happier and get the most out of your relationship.
how to pet a dog

Sentience

Lay people have acknowledged for hundreds of years that animals have consciousness. We see it when a dog or cat is trying to figure out a new stimulus. We see it when they dream. When a dog sleeps, he may rapidly move his paws, he may whimper, you see his eyes rapidly moving back and forth and we can see that he is in the deep stages of REM. We know that he is dreaming, but we may not know what he is dreaming about. The very fact that he is dreaming proves his sentience. If you have no consciousness, then you can’t dream. 

dominance training

Over the last hundred years or so, science has begun catching up to what most people already knew. Animals are sentient beings. It seems absurd to the average dog owner, but scientists are uncomfortable with the idea of consciousness in animals. If an animal is aware of his surroundings and can feel pain, then blinding him with cosmetics in test studies suddenly seems more cruel. Accepting that animals are conscious beings went against previously held beliefs and conventional wisdom at the time. Realizing that animals are conscious beings meant developing and testing new theories. However, science is now accepting the fact that animals have feelings. According to Dr Jaak Panskepp, a neuroscientist at  Washington State University, animals are capable of these core emotions;

Seeking, Rage, Fear, Panic, Lust, Care and Play.
These “generate well-organized behaviour sequences that can be evoked by localized electrical stimulation of the brain.” Translation; if you stimulate the brain system for one emotion you will always get the same behaviour.
Seeking: According to Panskepp, seeking Is the basic impulse to search, investigate, and make sense of the environment.” Seeking is a combination of curiosity, wanting something really good and anticipating it. Seeking drives a tiger to stalk his prey, it’s the reason ants farm aphids for nectar, it’s why beavers build dams so elaborate that they change northern topography.
Seeking is why humans desire to learn, it is also why we desire shiny objects. We are always looking for something we don’t yet have. Seeking is a very pleasurable emotion, it is tied to anticipation. Sometimes looking forward to getting something is just as good or even better than actually getting it.
Rage: This is a very basic emotion, one that even newborns experience. It occurs when the subcortical area of the brain is stimulated. Frustration is a mild form of rage that is caused by physical or mental restraint. (This is why keeping dogs constantly tethered can be so damaging and even dangerous.)
Fear: Fear is located in the subcortex of the brain, in this lies the amygdala, or fear center of the brain. Animals feel fear when their survival is threatened in one way or another. When the amygdala is damaged, fear is gone. There are reports of wild animals becoming very tame after damaging the amygdala.
Panic: According to Panskepp, panic is related to the social attachment system. It is likely that the panic system evolved from physical pain. Dogs who experience separation anxiety are literally experiencing pain when they fear that their pack will not return.
Lust: Without lust there will be extinction. Lust is sexual desire and is very necessary for species survival. Lust is instinctual and unless an animal has been altered in some way, there is no suppressing this instinct. People who have had intact animals have no doubt noticed the lengths that an animal will go to to fulfill these desires.
Care: Care refers to the maternal love that an animal feels for its young. 
dogs wolves history
Play: Play is located in the subcortex. Science can not yet explain play, though it is thought to be a sign of good welfare. Play is something that the young of most mammals engage in. By playing, animal young are able to practice fighting, food gathering and fornication. Skills that will serve them well into adulthood. Play is something that young animals leave behind when they enter adulthood; with two exceptions: dogs and humans. Humans and dogs are the only animals who continue to play as adults. Dogs are the juvenile forms of wolves. They share much of the same DNA, but never fully grow into adulthood. Humans share much of the same DNA as chimps. Based on that, there is a theory that humans are the juvenile forms of chimpanzees. Humans grew smarter, but never really grew up. While I can not say for sure whether or not this theory is correct, I’m sure it needs much more testing and observation, I find it fascinating nonetheless. 
These core emotions, found in all mammals (including humans) and birds, come from the same systems in the brain. When experts dissect brains or study them in x-rays, it is very difficult to tell the difference between the Hindbrain and Limbic systems of a human’s brain and an animal’s. Humans have a larger, more fully developed neocortex. The neocortex controls higher, consecutive functions. Primates, Dolphins, and possibly elephants have a neocortex, though a humans is larger. The frontal lobe, located in the neocortex, controls reasoning, judgment, problem solving and impulse control. The neocortex is where we differ from most animals. Most animals have a Limbic system of the brain, the Limbic system controls the emotions.
Ian Duncan, professor of Animal Science at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, notes a time line on animal sentience, public and scientific awareness of sentience, and welfare. Starting in the Renaissance among the populace and in the 1800s among scientists and philosophers. Scientific study of sentience lagged in the mid 1900s but picked up again with a vengeance towards the latter part of the century.  It got to the point where some scientists were attributing the same complex emotions in animals from dolphins to butterflies! This led to a negative backlash, where once again, scientists were afraid to mention sentience at all. We are now in a period where it has leveled off again. We recognize that, because of the limbic system, animals and humans are capable of the same basic emotions.
If we understand how animals feel, then we can better understand their needs and how to meet them.  A handful of dedicated researchers have spent years teaching sign language to gorillas and language comprehension to parrots, both with great success. This has opened up a previously unknown world of animal minds. It is really exciting to me to see where this will lead. 
Treaty of Lisbon
On 1 December 2009, European Union members ratified the Treaty of Lisbon, which grants legal status to animals by virtue of sentience. This is huge as it now offers European animals greater standards in welfare. Live animals used for experiments must now be spared pain in every stage from transportation through the experiment and even until the death of the animal. Animals must now be constantly monitored for stress and the environment must meet all the animals needs. Scientists are also looking for more viable non-animal models to test on.
1 December 2009 was a big day for European animals!
dog training behavior problems nutrition history ethology

Made In North America

This Website was Made In North America. 
Made In North AmericaThere has been a lot of concern lately about food coming out of China, and with good reason. Many of the recalls in recent years have involved food imported from Asia, and especially China. Many Americans and Europeans are opting to eschew foreign goods in favour of domestic made products. This is partly to support local economies and largely out of concern for proper quality control. 
Alas, finding food that is 100% China-free is harder than it sounds. Some labels that claim “Made in USA” only mean that they were assembled here, from parts made or grown elsewhere. Legally, for a product to carry the “Made in America” label, the product must be made in America. There are no rules in place regarding the individual parts of a product. If Mary’s Premium Dog Food has a Made in America tag, it only means that it was assembled there. 
The sad news is, that many food ingredients are made in China, especially vitamins. The odds are high that if you buy a product with these vitamins in it, it came from China. China is the largest importer of pet food ingredients in the U.S. 
While I can’t guarantee that a product is 100% made in America with 100% all American made parts, I can provide a helpful list of dog foods and treats that bear the Made in the USA label. Who knows? Maybe if enough people make enough noise we may see some genuine change. Businesses are about profits. If the money trail begins with domestic products, there will be a greater demand for said product and thus a greater supply. One can only hope.
Made In North AmericaAll foods made exclusively with U.S. ingredients except where stated otherwise.
Dog Food
-4 Health Dog Food
-Abady Dog Food Company
-All American Pet Company
-Artemis Holistic Pet Food (All foods from U.S except lamb from New Zealand)
-Aunt Jeni’s
-Azmira Holistic Animal Care Products (All foods from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand and sea meal from Scotland)
-Back to Basics
-Bench and Field
-Blackwood Pet Food (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand)
-Blue Buffalo (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand)
-Blue Seal
-Bone Vivant
-Bravo Raw Diet (Products from U.S. except lamb, venison and beef which are imported from New Zealand and Australia)
-Burns Pet Health
-Canidae
-Canine Caviar (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand)
-Champion Petfoods. Ltd (Made in Canada, except rice from U.S. and lamb from New Zealand)
-Cloud Star
-Dad’s Pet Food
-Diamond Pet Foods (American and Canadian ingredients)
-Dynamite Speciality Products
-Evangers (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand or Australia)
-First Mate Pet Food (All ingredients from U.S. and Canada except lamb from New Zealand)
-Flint River Ranch
-Grandma Lucy’s
-Great Life
-Halo Purely for Pets
-Happy Dog Food
-Healthy Pet Products
-Holistic Blend (Made in Canada except lamb from New Zealand)
-Homestyle Select
-Kirklands Signature Blend (Made in U.S. and Canada)
-Life4K9
-Merrick Pet Foods
-mORIGINS
-Muenster Milling Company (Made in U.S. except flaxseed from Canada)
-Natura Pet Products
-Natures Logic (Some ingredients are from Canada, France, New Zealand and Norway)
-Natures Recipe
-Nutram Pet Products (Made in Canada except lamb from New Zealand and herbs and vitamins from Europe)
-PHD Products (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand)
-Plato Pet Treats (Made in U.S. except some preservatives from Europe and Glucosamine from India)
-Primal Pet Foods (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb and venison from New Zealand)
-ProPac Superpremium Pet Foods (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand or Australia and Flaxseed from Canada)
-Rudy Green’s Doggy Cuisine
-Solid Gold Health Food for Pets (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand and potato protein from Europe)
-Sportmix Pet Food (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand and flaxseed from Canada)
-Steve’s Real Food Inc.
-Three Dog Bakery
-Tuffy’s Pet Food
-VeRUS Pet Foods (All ingredients from U.S. except lamb from New Zealand)
-Wysong
Honourable Mention
-ZiwiPeak, Ltd (All ingredients from New Zealand)
While not made in North America, ZiwiPeak gets a nod for not being made in Asia
Note: All foods listed here comes from research dated 16 May, 2012. All foods listed were made with U.S. ingredients except where mentioned otherwise. Food with negligible ingredients from China did not make this list. However, as stated above, the likelihood of any food being completely free of Chinese ingredients is slim. This list is to merely provide a jumping point for people looking for American made dog food, A Dog’s View does not endorse any product on this list. If you have any questions or concerns about any product listed, please contact your manufacture.